MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching

Vol. 7, No. 1, March 2011

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Integrating Sustainability into the Business Curriculum through E-Learning

Pia A. Albinsson
Appalachian State University
The Walker College of Business
Department of Marketing
Boone, NC 28608 USA


B. Yasanthi Perera
New Mexico State University
College of Business
Department of Management
Las Cruces, NM 88003 USA


Pookie Sautter
New Mexico State University
College of Business
Department of Marketing
Las Cruces, NM 88003 USA



This article presents a set of online activities, using free Internet resources, aimed at increasing students’ understanding of sustainability in business. Incorporating sustainability education into business curricula canshape organizational work climates by influencing various microeconomic objectives such as (1) sustainability certification of products, operations, and supply chains; (2) zero-waste; (3) eco-efficiency; (4) work-place well-being; (5) and community vitality. Currently, European and North American business schools mostly focus sustainability education efforts at the graduatelevel. Due to this gap, the authors designed the activities described in this paper for implementation at the undergraduate level. The outcomes reveal that students who participate in these activities more successfully identify the relevance of sustainability, and corporate social responsibility in the work place and in their personal lives. In contrast, students who did not participate in these activities exhibited a vague understanding of these concepts, and were less adept at both identifying and describing socially responsible practices. In addition, students not exposed to the activities were less apt to engage in sustainability practices in their personal lives. The results indicate that educators can increase students’ knowledge of sustainability, business ethics, and social responsibility by integrating the suggested activities into their curricula.

Keywords: sustainable business, online educational resources, corporate social responsibility, environment, online teaching and learning, marketing curriculum


In recent years, the notion of “sustainability” has garnered much attention in academia and mainstream publications. In most instances, it is natural to relate sustainability to corporations as their practices (e.g., production, waste disposition) affect the natural environment and, therefore, the availability of resources for future generations. Indeed, business stakeholders increasingly recognize the need for greater coverage of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability issues in business and marketing education (Cunningham, 2008). However, current research suggests that such integration is not as widespread as some maybelieve. For instance, European and North American business schools focus most of theirsustainability education efforts at the graduate level (Bridges & Wilhelm, 2008; Matten & Moon, 2004), and undergraduate coverage, while uncommon, relies heavily on the case method because of limited textbook coverage (Demoss & Nicholson, 2005). Indeed, Rundle-Thiele and Wymer (2010), in their study of curricula in New Zealand and Australia, reported that statements of sustainability/CSRcurricular coverage were largely overstated. Accordingly, educators have much work to do in terms of sensitizing students to the importance of CSR and sustainable practices in business education.

While the factors that impede progress on curricular integration are likely numerous and complex, there exists a need for pedagogical tools that readily support the integration of sustainability into business curricula. Because sustainability education is not yet a required component of undergraduate curricula at most institutions, individual faculty members are the primary drivers of integrating CSR and sustainability education into undergraduate business courses (Matten & Moon, 2004). Building upon prior research on ethics, sustainability, and CSR education in business courses (e.g., Becker, 1997; Bhattacharaya & Sheth, 1996; Borin &Metcalf, 2010; Bridges & Wilhelm, 2008; Cunningham, 2008; Loe & Ferrell, 2001; Matten & Moon, 2004), the authors describe a series of activities easily implemented in a variety of business courses and educational formats (e.g., online through Blackboard/Moodle, hybrid, and face-to-face classes). The authors designed the series of activities to open students' eyes to the ubiquitous relevance of sustainability throughout the value creation process, and to stimulate in them a desire to learn more about the particulars of sustainable business and marketing practices.

Although the authors developed these activities to integrate sustainability and CSR education into business curricula, the activities provide conceptual relevance in other contexts. All human beings are consumers of various products and services, and the vast majority work as employees for organizations that produce consumable goods and services. As such, any individual can be educatedinsustainability and CSR issues and related consequences for consumption and disposition choices, both as household consumers and as organizational members. The authors contend that by educating students across the curriculum on sustainability issues, facultyraise students’ general awareness thereby potentially increasing the students’ future influence over the business community.

Literature Review

In light of global warming and other climate-relatedissues, Peggy Cunningham (2008), the former Director of the Queen’s Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility, advocated for marketing academics to emphasize ethics and CSR education in marketing curricula. Similarly, other advising bodies have called for greater focus on CSR and sustainability in training and educating future business leaders (e.g., AACSB-International, UNESCO, and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development). Unfortunately, as the majority of American business schools primarily operate under the “shareholder-value oriented governance of capitalist organizations” model (Matten & Moon, 2004, p. 329), many educators perceive insurmountable challenges in reconciling this view and that of social responsibility. This, along with the multiple and contradictory conceptualizations of CSR in the literature (Garriga & Mele, 2004), pose a challenge for educators. However, Carroll’s (1979) conceptualization of CSR incorporates multiple views, asking corporations to balance their responsibilities towardvarious stakeholders. These stakeholders include those within the organization (e.g., employees, customers, shareholders, suppliers), the community (e.g., local residents and special interest groups), the regulatory environment (e.g., municipalities, regulatory systems), and the media (Maignan & Ferrell, 2004). In the current article, the authors adopt McWilliams and Siegal’s (2001) definition of CSR as “actions that appear to further some social good, beyond the interests of the firms and that which is required by law” (p. 117). Additionally, it is important to highlight that, while many view CSR as an added cost, integrating it into firms’ long-term operational strategies bestows them with competitive advantage (Porter & Kramer, 2002). Thus,aligning and complementing CSR efforts with a firm’s strategy makes it possible for organizations to maximize shareholder returns while simultaneously operating in a responsible manner that contributes to the wellbeingof society (Maignan & Ferrell, 2001; Porter & Kramer, 2006).

Research indicates that managers’ interests and values influence the formulation, adoption, and implementation of socially responsible practices in organizations (Hemingway & Maclagan, 2004). Therefore,education that focuses on building an awareness and appreciation for CSR and sustainability should influence the practices of future managers. Even though Robin and Reidenbach (1987) suggested incorporating business ethics and social responsibility into the strategic marketing planning processes over 20years ago, many educators have yet to decide whether sustainability education is best covered ostensibly in all business classes or in greater depth in specialized courses (Bridges & Wilhelm, 2008).However, it clearly behooves educators to incorporate some level of sustainability education into the general business curricula to betterprepare students to facethe green challenge in the workplace (Hasan, 1993; Munilla, Bleicken & Miles, 1998).

CSR and sustainability practices emphasize the long-term ‘triple bottom-line’ (Elkington, 1998) as opposed to the short-term financial bottom- line. Triple bottom- line oriented organizations emphasize “creating organizations that can sustain financial, human-social, and environmental resources over the long term" (Bradbury, 2003, p. 173). Hence, when teaching these issues to students, it is important to stress that sustainability and CSR practices present an opportunity to revitalize companies and the economy through serving, rather than exploiting the environment and human social systems (Bradbury, 2003). The triple bottom-line perspective necessitates an integrated, big picture view of the business value chain.

Sustainable and socially responsible business practices also complement the American Marketing Association’s (AMA) most recent definition of marketing as, "the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large" (AMA, 2007). This revised definition of marketing shifts the perspective of marketing from being an organizational activity to a more pervasive activity that influences all aspects of the world and society (Gundlach & Wilkie, 2009). Each marketing activity occurs within a highly interconnected system that ultimately affects perceptions of value creation (or destruction) held by customers, clients, partners, and society. Consideration and understanding of this complex interplay of value creation and destruction is the very essence of sustainable business practices. To illustrate the importance of these concepts, the authors designed a sequence of activities that challenged students to reflect on the value chain as an interdependentsystem of stakeholders whose quality of life is affected by business practices (Albinsson & Perera, 2009; Albinsson, Perera, & Sautter, 2009, 2010; Bridges & Wilhelm, 2008; Kashyap, Mir & Iyer, 2006; Maignan & Ferrell, 2004).

Methods and Procedures - Three Exercises on Sustainability

In a desire to apply the cognitive domain of Bloom’s (1956) taxonomy for a more holistic learning experience, the authors initially created the following exercises to introduce Principles of Marketing students to the notion of social responsibility and sustainability. As the exercises were well received and appeared to have the desired impact on students' understanding and willingness to incorporate social responsibility and sustainability into their lives, the authors modifiedthem for implementation in other upper-division marketing and management courses. The authors administered these exercises in various classes including Integrated Marketing Communications, Services Marketing, International Marketing, Teams in Organizations, and Organizational Behavior. The following discussion begins with a description of the exercises as administered in a Principles of Marketing class, followed by a description of how the authors adapted the exercises to the other courses. The Appendix includes question guidelines for each activity.

Exercise One

The first exercise exposes students to the value chain as it relates to stages in the materials economy (i.e.,extraction, production, distribution, consumption, and disposal). For this exercise, the students view (in class or online at) or ) a free 20-minute online movie entitled “The Story of Stuff” (Leonard, 2007), answer a series of reflective questions, and engage in discussions either in class or through an online discussion board. The questions require students to research and report current examples of business practices that do, and donot, support principles of sustainability and CSR in the value chain. The questions facilitate students' understanding of sustainability by asking them to identify sustainability practices manifest in organizations. Moreover, it provides an opportunity for classroom/online discussion about individuals’ perspectives on these practices that may range from corporations engaging in ‘green washing’ to engender favorable publicity, to developing a genuine commitment to sustainability principles.

Exercise Two

Whereas the first exercise facilitates basic knowledge of sustainability, Exercise 2 challenges students to think deeply about the concepts and focus on higher levels of learning, i.e.,comprehension and application, in Bloom's taxonomy (1956). After completing this exercise, students should be better able to identify and evaluate the effect of business activities on the triple bottom-line (i.e.,economic, environmental, and social performance) and think abstractly about how sustainable marketing practices can strategically reinforce and complement a company's brand image.

For Exercise 2, students view materials at Nike’s “Reuse a Shoe” website ( ). The video is followedby a guided discussion (conducted in-class or online via discussion boards or chat for real-time interaction) that seeks to deepen students' understanding of closed loop production systems and the implications for sustainable marketing practices. The Nike website provides excellent information on closed loop production systems, including video clips and specific details on the comprehensive value creation (and destruction) process. Nike provides information on reverse channels of distribution to illustrate how consumers return shoes to the company while alluding to the related issues of cost and capacity constraints of such programs. This example provides an opportunity for students to consider the strategic issues of brand image reinforcement (e.g., Nike's use of recycled materials to create sport surfaces) and promotion benefits realized through enhanced community relations and new job creation.

 Exercise Three

The final activity pushes students to higher levels of learning related to synthesis and new idea generation. In this exercise, the authors instruct the students to brainstorm a way to “close the loop” for a product theyconsume locally, thus creating new value from the disposal of the original product. Students receive specific instructions and either post their ideas on an online class discussion board, or discuss them in class in case of hybrid and face-to-face classes.

Adaptability and additional resources

As previously mentioned, though the authors initially designed these activities in the context of a Principles of Marketing course, they are suitable for most business courses and mayalso be administered in general education courses. Faculty may easily adapt these exercisesto fit different course formats (e.g., face-to-face, online, or hybrid classes) and for different levels of courses (e.g., lower versusupper-division class, or undergraduate versus graduate classes). For example, in International Marketing the ensuing discussion for Exercises 1and 2 emphasized the extraction of resources and the way people in different national markets garner different benefits from production, consumption, and disposal stages of products. In Services Marketing, the discussion focused on positive and negative impacts of eco-tourism, carbon-offsets, replanting of trees and recycling in the travel/hospitality/restaurant industries, and the impact of CO 2 labeling of fast food menu items (Albinsson & Conner, 2010). Additionally, in Integrated Marketing Communications classes, Nike's manufacturing of resurfacing materials for athletic facilities as the product of its closed loop system provided excellent fodder for discussing the importance of consistent themes and messaging in marketing strategy.

In management classes, the activities provided a springboard for discussing the role of business in society and the way societal forces, such as government regulation, and state and local infrastructure, influence sustainability practices of corporations and private individuals. Class discussions emphasized the importance of sustainability in the procurement of resources and in production processes that minimize, or ideally eliminate, negative impact on various stakeholders and the environment. In Organizational Behavior classes, students discussed firms’ relationships with, and obligations to, internal and external stakeholders and various strategies of howto negotiate these competing interests. In the Teams in Organizations course, the discussion shifted to unpacking what sustainability means with respect to human interactions and explored the cross-generational tradeoffs that are central to sustainability interests (Bruntland Commission, 1987).

These examples illustrate that educators can easily modify these activities to suit the learning objectives of their respective courses. Additionally, feedback from students indicates that these activities educate them as consumers to make better purchasing decisions that align with their personal values. Moreover, the activities also highlight how educators may utilizereadily availableInternet resources in teaching issues of sustainability and social responsibility. Some additional resources include the following:


The authors base their conclusions regarding the usefulness of these activities through their experiences in administering them, as separate activities or as the three-part sequence, in more than eighteenbusiness courses with more than 1,000 students at two universities in the United States during a three year period (see Table 1). The two institutions are similar in size and academic offerings, but differ widely in terms of the diversity of student demographics. The data did not indicate marked differences in student responses between the two institutions, thus indicating that these exercises are suitable for implementation across diverse student populations.

To measure the effectiveness of the first exercise, the authors administered the general follow-up questions about CSR and sustainability to a selection of control classes that wereunexposedto “The Story of Stuff” and to treatment group classes that had watched the video. Although these assessments were qualitative, the authors found noticeable differences in the students’ responses (see Table 2).

During the initial data collection and assessment in two classes during fall 2008, students who viewed the movie reported distinctly different information from students who did not watch the movie. The primed students expressed concerns for the society and global community, and for the need for awareness and action in one's own personal and professional lives withrespect to social responsibility. They drew upon their experiences, as well as coursework, books and movies, to supplement their understanding of social responsibility whereas none of the unprimed students integrated such sources in their conceptualizations. For example, one of the primed students spoke of the influence of the book Affluenza (de Graaf et al. 2001) and another spoke of her formative experiences in a Native American boarding school where she learned the importance of preserving Mother Earth. Unprimed students, in contrast, expressed social responsibility either in very general terms, or in terms that focused on their own self-interests.

The outcomesindicated that, many weeks later, the primed students were more adept in integrating the concept of social responsibility with their knowledge and experiencesand were more concrete in providing details of various socially responsible practices they had adapted since viewing “The Story of Stuff.” Some of these behaviors included limiting fuel consumption, critically questioning purchasing decisions, and purchasing environmentally friendly products. In class-relatedactivities, the students were more aware of companies’ CSR efforts and often commented on CSR and/orsustainability efforts of companies discussed in class. The unprimed students, in contrast, offered vague ideas of socially responsible practices undertaken by companies and individuals, sometimes indicating that they never thought of such matters, or expressed feelings of inconvenience associated with changing their lifestyles.

The authors administered the follow-up questions to five additional treatment group classes (approximately 135 students) and four control group classes (approximately 109 students) during the 2009/2010 academic year.Table 1 does not include all control groups becausesome of the follow-up surveys were administered in other business classes that werenot taught by the authors and students did not participate in the exercises. O’Neal (2009, p. 93) found no differences in the quality of discussions in online and traditional instruction when “specific content-related questions are provided to structure the discussions.” Therefore, the authors decided to compare and contrast online discussion postings with responses collected in hybrid and face-to-face classes through qualitative analysis methods to gauge the effectiveness of the exercises.

Table 1. Exercises implemented in Marketing/Management courses

Class and format





# of Students

Summer 2010

Integrated Marketing Communications - H






Organizational Behavior – O






Spring 2010

Principles of Marketing - O






Services Marketing - H






Integrated Marketing Communication - H (2sections)

x (1)

x (1)

x (1)

x (2)

25 + 29

Teams in Organizations – F






Teams in Organizations - O






Fall 2009

Principles of Marketing - O






Integrated Marketing Communications – H

(2 sections)

x (1)

x (1)


x (2)

25 + 26

Organizational Behavior - O






Summer 2009

Integrated Marketing Communications - H






Organizational Behavior - O






Spring 2009

Services Marketing - O






Teams in Organizations - O






Fall 2008

International Marketing - O






Organizational Behavior - O









O – Online, H – Hybrid, F – Face-to-face

Content analysis of the students’ responses yielded results similar to those found in 2008. Although most students agreed on the importance of firms engaging in CSR and sustainability efforts, the students who participated in the exercises offered more detailed and thought provoking responses featuring a greater willingness to take responsibility for their actions, and the implications of those actions, on sustainability (see Table 2 for some illustrative and representative examples).Some students initially questioned the appropriateness of “The Story of Stuff” for marketing and management courses due to the film's somewhat critical portrayal of business. However, in most cases, these students noted that this expanded perspective made the exercise more genuine and meaningful in that it required them to reflect critically upon the idea that there are “good ways and bad ways” to conduct business. In fact, the somewhat skeptical and at times argumentative tone of the video material promoted lively debate as students’ called upon their critical thinking abilities. Students responded very favorably to all three exercises in open-ended questions on the course evaluations. They particularly liked the creative aspects of the third activity as it allowed them to “think outside the box” and “ignite a creative entrepreneurial side of (their) brain(s)”. Though many students used the Internet to find real-liferather than self-created, examples of closed loop production activities (e.g., using gypsum waste from construction drywall as fertilizer, recycled glass shards in colored gravel, pecan shells for compressed weed barriers), the sharing process produced a heightened awareness of sustainable marketing products and processes.

Table 2. Illustrative examples of learning outcomes (Spring 2010, 2 IMC sections)

Reflective student perspectives on if firms should engage in CSR/ sustainability efforts after completing Exercise 1-3

Reflective student responses on if firms should engage in CSR/ sustainability efforts (control group)*

Yes, and most do. CSR is a huge deal for today’s corporations. For most of the corporations they do practice sustainability, it’s their responsibility to their community, employees and themselves (female, 21)

Yes, because we all live in this world and have to for many years to come (female, 21)

Yes, corporations use so much energy, products and general resources, and they need to think more about their actions. They should want to reduce their footprint to make themselves more appealing, possible also save money, and reduce their significant impact on the environment (male 21)

Yes, because some of the most detrimental effects on the environment (male, 22)

I believe they should engage in CSR as long as it fits with their business goals. For example, if a company’s goals are to drill oil, it should do so in a way that promotes the greatest social well-being (in both short and long-term) such as preventing oil spills in a cost effective manner. However, I don’t support companies who engage in CSR efforts to boost their image such as fundraisers for unrelated charities etc. (female, 20)

Yes, we all should take pride in where we live and want it to be safe and clean (female, 27)

Yes, corporations generate the most waste, therefore they should make efforts to recycle and give back to the communities that they are stripping of its resources (extraction phase). I also believe that if corporations practice CSR efforts, it will “rub off” on employees and consumers so they might practice it in their own lives (male 21)

Yes, because they [companies] are huge producers of waste. If they cut down on their waste a significant amount of the world can be saved (male, 21)

Yes, if firms engage in CSR and cut down on their wastefulness by a fraction, they will cause a huge positive impact on the world and encourage other business and people to do the same (female, 21)

Yes, because they [companies] have a lot of power ($) in the world and are able to make changes, not just talk about them (female, 22)

Why wouldn’t a firm choose to do this, I wonder? I believe that every company should make an effort to be more social responsible – it should be a requirement. It only helps and if everyone does his/her/their parts, we can sustain this planet longer (female, 28)

Yes, because I believe it’s important to hold socially responsibility in high regard (male, 22)

Absolutely, there are so many corporations that do things that hurt the environment. If they engaged in CSR and sustainability efforts, it would make a drastic change to the negative aspects of the environment. Simple things such as recycling and proper waste dispose would help tremendously (male, 20)

If they don’t, I think they will be left behind and cease to exist because the future is till all about sustainability (male, 22)



*Did not complete any of the three exercises and indicated that they had not seen or heard about the Story of Stuff movie.


Educators have a role in helping students understand that sustainable business practices present a long-term mutually beneficial situationfor companies, employees, consumers, and society. The learning activities described encompass several learning tools to achieve this understanding. For instance, in Exercise 1students conduct online research to answer the reflective questions related to the “Story of Stuff” movie material, and usingthe Internet for such research helps students realize the power of the sustainability movement and its impact on the business world. For example, students reported the noticeable trend of an increasing numbers of companies adopting sustainable production lines (e.g., Levi Strauss’ eco-friendly organic cotton jeans line and Sony Entertainment’s lighter DVD packaging estimated to reduce CO 2 emission by 2billion poundsper year). Thus, Exercise 1 helps educators harness the power of the Internet to teach students about sustainability and social responsibility in the business world.

The two other exercises help students integrate the fruits of their research, and the information provided, think critically,and brainstorm ways in which local companies can adopt sustainability practices, aim for reduced or ‘zero-waste,’ and ‘close the loop’ on production. The authors contend that this shift towardthe students’ local sphere is critical because it challenges students to apply these practices in their daily lives, and in their local sphere. Thusupon graduation, the critical thinking engendered by these exercises may prompt some students to take initiative in integrating sustainability and social responsibility into business practices in their workplaces. Additionally, some of this classroom exposure to sustainability may foster public-private partnerships and collaboration on community-based service learning projects. Finally, though the authors developed these activities for implementation in business courses, it is conceivable for them to be adapted for non-business courses to raise students’ awareness of sustainability issues.

Conclusion, Limitations and Implications

In this paper, the authors present a set of learning activities that educators may use in mainstreaming CSR in the business curricula toincrease CSR and sustainability thinking among students. The outcomes support van der Zwan and Bhamra‘s (2003) assertion that integrating CSR education into the curriculum better prepares students to face workplace environmental and societal challenges (e.g., Hasan, 1993; Munilla, Bleicken & Miles, 1998). Still, much more can be done to better understand, and enhance, the value of this and related curriculum activities. For example, a longitudinal study that compares treatment versus control groups of students on general consumption, disposition and workchoices throughout their university careers may better address the more enduring effects of these exercises. This in turn maylead to stronger conclusions about the impact of such learning activities on students' subsequent business practices and decisions in their professional careers.


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Guidelines to Accompany Exercises

Exercise 1

The following questions relate to the movie Story of Stuff that we watched in class, if you were absent, please review the video at or click on the link available on WebCT/Blackboard/Moodle. Please take some time to reflect and provide thoughtful responses to each of the following questions. Simply write your answer after each question.

1. The video labels the cycle of extraction>production>distribution>consumption>disposal as the materials economy. The basic cycle is also known by terms as the supply chain or value (creation) chain. In your opinion, do the majority of businesses today manage the value chain in a way that promotes sustainability? Describe 1-2 examples of business decisions that actual firms or companies have made which supports your opinion.

2. State your current major:

3. Search the Internet for a specific news story that details a specific example of an organization, which undertook a decision/activity in your major area of study that supported principles of sustainability and corporate social responsibility

a) Provide the URL for the specific location of the story:
b) Summarize the story in your own words.
c) Explain the implications of the example for the organization’s triple bottom line.

4. Similar to question 3, provide a specific example of an organization which undertook a decision/activity in your major area of study that DID NOT support principles of sustainability and corporate social responsibility

a) Provide the URL for the specific location of the story:
b) Summarize the story in your own words.

c) Explain the implications of the example for the organization’s triple bottom line.

5. In the Story of Stuff blog, under green design, Annie Leonard blogs about a product that “freaked her out,” the NEXT shower gel. Think of an offering that you have purchased/used that is over-packaged.

a) Describe the product and its packaging.
b) Describe how the packaging could be changed to be more sustainable.

6). Assume that your suggested packaging changes in answer 5 is implemented.

a) Explain how the changes may positively affect persons/groups in the value chain (anywhere from extraction to disposal).
b) Explain how the changes may negatively affect persons/groups in the value chain (anywhere from extraction to disposal).

7. In the video Leonard says, “The only part of the Materials Economy consumers see is the shopping.” In what ways can we get consumers to see the bigger picture in terms of how value is created or destroyed throughout the supply chain?

Exercise 2

1) What economic costs/ revenues are associated with the Reuse-a-Shoe program?

2) What costs and/or benefits are created for the environment through the Reuse a Shoe program?

3) What persons/groups (i.e., social equity) are positively or negatively affected by this addition to Nike’s activities?

4) Why is the use of Nike Grind for sports surfaces a better choice than using it for commercial warehouse flooring? How does it support the image and mission of the Nike Corporation?

Exercise 3

1) Name a specific brand offering of a product you consumer locally

2) Describe the tangible waste materials generated by your consumption of the product

3) Describe a strategy to be undertaken by the producer of the local good/service which will "close the loop" on waste materials generated by consumption of the product.

4) Explain/describe how the new product or reinvention of the waste will benefit the strategic vision for the company and positively affect stakeholders in the company and local community.

Manuscript received 6 Dec 2010; revision received 10 Feb 2011.

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Last Modified : 2011/03/15